High Performance, Robust and Secure Group Communication

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Yearly Technical Report, July 2002

Objective:

A practical group communication system should provide secure multicast services for peer groups over local and wide area networks. To support the environment described in the Dynamic Coalition program, such a system should scale to tens of coalition parties, with hundreds of servers, supporting thousands of users. This service is crucial for building distributed applications that work in dynamic environments and communicate over unsecured networks (e.g. the Internet). It is also important for enabling other infrastructures for these environments, such as replicated certification, highly available policy management, and high performance access control.

A common claim today is that a wide-area, secure group communication system with strict reliability semantics and strict security requirements, cannot perform well enough to be practical. Based on our past and current work, we claim that with careful protocol design, a system that is limited to the size of the above peer groups can perform well without relaxing any of the security or reliability guarantees. The objective of this project is to build it.

Approach:

Our technical approach builds our work with the Spread group communication system (http://www.spread.org) and the CLIQUES key agreement protocols suite (http://sconce.ics.uci.edu/cliques/). Our approach includes the following innovative aspects:

  • Constructing group communication protocols that support wide and local area networks with tens of sites, hundreds of servers, and thousands of users.
  • Current key agreement protocols are not designed to tolerate failures and changes in the membership during their execution. Our protocols, in contrast, will be completely resilient to any sequence of such events. We believe this will be the first robust implementation of distributed key agreement protocols that provide perfect forward secrecy, group membership authentication, non-repudiation, and resilience to known-key attacks.
  • The performance of a group key generation protocol is very dependent on the network structure, the relative power of machines, and the algorithm used. We do not think that there can be one key agreement protocol that outperforms all other protocols in all of the possible environments. Instead, we will develop several different algorithms, each optimized (performance-wise) for a different setting.
  • We design and build a modular architecture that allows different security protocols to be plugged in. The architecture will switch protocols during execution in agreement with other members, so that the most suitable protocol for the current situation is invoked. The selection will be based on the current state of the network, available system resources, the number of members in the group, a user defined policy, etc.
  • The current state of the art in secure group communication implements security as a layer, separate from the reliability, ordering, and membership services. Although this structure has much merit, there is a high performance cost attached. We will build two versions of our system that share most of the code and infrastructure. The Layered Architecture version will have the security services provided on top of the reliability, ordering and membership services. The Integrated Architecture version will tailor the security protocols into the core reliability, ordering and membership services, drastically cutting the latency and bandwidth cost associated with group membership changes.
  • In a Dynamic Coalition environment, it is likely that each coalition party will retain its autonomy, which includes full control over its part of the infrastructure. This is in contrast to current group communication architectures that assume one administrative domain. Our system will allow multiple autonomous control domains, while still preserving the tightly coupled group communication semantics.

Recent accomplishments:

Layered architecture

During the last year, we achieved one of the main milestones for the project by releasing Secure Spread 2.0. This system includes implementation of five different key agreement protocols and allows evaluation of all of them under the same system. The Secure Spread system now supports these key agreement protocols:

  • BD (Burmester Desmedt) - a protocol that requires three rounds and upto n multicasts in each round, and is fairly easy to make it robust.
  • CKD (Centralized Key Distribution) - a protocol that selects a leader based on the membership of a group and that leader computes a key and disseminates it to the others.
  • GDH (Group Diffie Hellman) - our basic CLIQUES protocol.
  • STR - A sparse tree group Diffie Hellman.
  • TGDH (Tree-based Group Diffie Hellman).

We have experimented with the five different protocols over a local area network. Using the Secure Spread framework supporting five key agreement protocols, we conducted extensive tests over high-latency wide area networks. Results discussing the performance and the trade-offs of these protocols on both local and wide area networks are presented in a technical report below.

Integrated Architecture

We completed an initial implementation of our access control framework which is part of our integrated architecture. This framework specifies a modular architecture allowing multiple access control and authentication protocols to be used and the location of checks in the group communication system to enforce the policies. The access control and authentication framework adds two new features to the Spread group communication system. First, it provides a modular API that allows anyone to write a custom authentication and access control policy code module which will be loaded into the Spread daemon. This module (or modules) will control how clients are authenticated when they connect to the daemon and what restrictions should be enforced on the clients actions (such as joining groups or sending messages). Second, it inserts appropriate checks into Spread to enforce whatever access control policy the user has enabled.

We have made a major step forward in our integrated architecture with respect to the key management building block. In this architecture, the key management block is moved from the Secure Spread library to the Spread daemon itself. This also changes the way the data is protected by means of encryption. The Spread daemons share a key and based on it and additional information generate group keys and refresh them after every group membership change. The daemons key is changed upon daemon membership changes. We finalized the design of three different solutions of providing confidentiality of the data, supporting two group communication semantics: Virtual Synchrony and Extended Virtual Synchrony. These solutions are:

  • Virtual Synchrony solution: provides the client with a Virtual Synchrony model, similar to the current layered Secure Spread implementation. It has the advantage, compared with the layered architecture, that key agreement protocol is required on every network connectivity change and not every join and leave of a client. Client joins and leave only require a local computation at each of the daemons that have relevant clients.
  • Extended Virtual Synchrony solution: provides the client with the more efficient Extended Virtual Synchrony model. We are protecting the data between the client and the daemon using a client-daemon key that is generated upon connect. The drawback of this method is that every message will be encrypted three times and deciphered three time (client -> daemon) (daemon -> daemons) (daemon -> client).
  • Optimized Extended Virtual Synchrony solution: similar to the above but in most cases encrypt and decipher the message only once. Only in messages that are sent just before a daemon connectivity change there will be a need for the messages to be deciphered and re-encrypted by the daemons. This solution provides a considerable performance boost, but is fairly complex to implement.

We started the implementation of these solutions. We are on our way to complete an implementation of the Virtual Synchrony solution and implemented the building blocks for the Extended Virtual Synchrony solution. The Extended Virtual Synchrony code was merged with the main development tree and is currently going under internal testing and evaluation. In addition, we designed a flexible architecture that will allow us to provide all the solutions in a configurable way.

Publications

On the Performance of Group Key Agreement Protocols
ps, ps.gz, pdf. Technical Report CNDS-2001-5, November 2001. A condensed form will appear in the Proceedings of the 22nd IEEE International Conference of Distributed Computing Systems, short paper, 2-5 July, Vienna, Austria.

Yair Amir, Kim Yongdae, Cristina Nita-Rotaru, and Gene Tsudik.

Group key agreement is a fundamental building block for secure peer group communication systems. Several group key agreement protocols were proposed in the last decade, all of them assuming the existence of an underlying group communication infrastructure.

This paper presents a performance evaluation of five notable key agreement protocols for peer groups, integrated with a reliable group communication system (Spread). They are: Centralized Group Key Distribution (CKD), Burmester-Desmedt (BD), Steer et al. (STR), Group Diffie-Hellman (GDH) and Tree-Based Group Diffie-Hellman (TGDH). The paper includes an in-depth comparison and analysis of conceptual results and is the first to report practical results in real-life local and wide area networks. Our analysis of these protocols' experimental results offers insights into their scalability and practicality.

Framework for Authentication and Access Control of Client-Server Group Communication Systems
ps, ps.gz, pdf. Published in the Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Networked Group Communications, London, United Kingdom, November 7-9, 2001. A longer version is available as CNDS Technical Report 2001-2 ( ps, ps.gz, pdf. ).

Yair Amir, Cristina Nita-Rotaru, and Jonathan Stanton

In this paper we present a framework for integrating authentication and access control mechanisms and policies into a group communication system.

Current plans:

  • The project was selected for red-teaming and we expect to provide support for this effort.
  • Continue our work on the integrated architecture. Current plans focus on testing and evaluating the Extended Virtual Synchrony and finalizing Optimized Extended Virtual Synchrony solution.
  • Update the integrated access control and authentication framework based on community feedback.
  • Continue to explore the different trade-offs of the different key agreement protocols on wide area networks. We plan to perform more scenarios using the EMULAB network.
  • Continue research into high performance wide area group communication.

Software:

Spread releases:

  • We released Spread 3.13 in August 2000. The main new features of this version included:
    • Scalability improvements in the number of groups in the system. The lightweight group management is now using probablistic algorithms that reduce group lookups to complexity of o(log(n)) down from o(n). This allows us to support tens of thousands of groups without noticeable performance penalty. Our system is still limited to about 1000 groups due to state transfer implementation limitation.
    • Performance improvements for small messages (by a factor of 4 or so).
    • A new configuration format that allows improved run time configuration.
  • We have released Spread 3.14 (October 31, 2000), 3.15.0 (December 20, 2000), 3.15.1 (February 26, 2001), and 3.15.2 (March 20, 2001) during this period. These releases address stability issues discovered by the growing community of Spread users.
  • A release of Spread, 3.16.0 (June 25, 2001), that includes a preliminary version of an integrated authentication and access control enforcement framework. We also have released several updates to Spread 3.16.0.
  • We have released Spread version 3.16.1 on December 2001.
  • We have released Spread version 3.16.2 in April 2002.

Secure Spread releases from the begining of the project:

  • We released Secure Spread Beta 0 in November 2000. This is a preliminary version which includes a fairly stable API and a correct implementation of the CLIQUES GDH key agreement protocol. Secure Spread beta 0 supports simple group events and failure scenarios. No cascading failures are supported. This version is available for other researchers to use. It works with Spread 3.12, 3.13 and 3.14.
  • We released Secure Spread Version 1.0 in March 2001. This version included a complete robust CLIQUES GDH protocol and a stable API for establishing secure groups and sending and receiving encrypted messages. This version is available and works with Spread 3.12, 3.13, 3.14, and 3.16.0.
  • This year we have released Secure Spread version 2.0 in February 2002, which includes all of the key agreement protocols we will exepriment with during this project.

Technology Transfer:

DARPA DC related:

  • SRI (Farrell) - red team.
  • BBN (Theriault/Meighan) - experimentation.
  • Rome labs / CACI (Valente/Cole) - evaluation.
  • SRI (Millen/Denker) - formal verification.
  • Irvine/Brown/Algomagic (Goodrich/Tamassia/Cohen) - message bus.
  • UMCP (Gligor) - message bus.
  • NCSU / MCNC (Yalta - Smith/Byrd) - secure group comm.
  • U Penn (Smith) - integrating Keynote into Spread.
Others:
  • 220 Secure Spread library downloads including major companies and international academics, going up exponentially.
  • During the period Spread was integrated into the beta version of OpenLinux. It was released in the next OpenLinux version in June.
  • Spread is used by hundreds of organizations. Lately it was added to several Linux distributions as well as FreeBSD.
  • There are several popular programs that use Spread, including Apache-SSL, Apache distributed logging, the native replication in the Postgres database and in the Zope product.
  • A Spread Workshop was held over three days at Johns Hopkins University in June 2001. This meeting included people from academia and industry and involved presentations, demos, and a collaborative discussion of future features, current needs and problems, and solutions.
  • We also participated at the Secure Group Communication Workshop organized by the NAI Labs, on March 13 2002, Glenwood, Maryland.

We were fortunate to host the Program Manager Dr. Douglas Maughan in September 2001. During the visit we demonstrated the Secure Spread system in action and live nation-wide experiments with Spread.


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